Each culture group, as well as each individual, expresses the impact of trauma differently. Among some groups, a stoic expression is more acceptable. In other groups, a more verbal or physical demonstration of pain and emotion are the norm.
It is important that we listen to the words or expressions used by clients in communicating their pain, as this is a guide to our response. Hearing these expressions also helps us to build suitable interventions for relaxation, imagery, safe place and other personalized practices.
Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) has been shown to improve outcomes for refugees who are experiencing PTSD.